What are the specific chemicals are being forced into the ground to create the fracking?

Depending on the shale formation that is being explored, a variety of additives will be selected by scientists and engineers to successfully fracture an individual well. Shale formations and individual wells are like snowflakes, no two are the same, so the fluid composition will vary on a well-by-well basis. FracFocus.org, a national chemical disclosure database has a list of the additives used in the process. Keep in mind that while there are hundreds of additives that an operator may use in a well, a handful will be selected for the fluid. It’s also important to note that water and sand comprise upwards of 99.5 percent of the fracturing fluids, with additives accounting for the remaining half of a percent.